Some fears are … In common usage, they also … [72] An internalized stigma arises when a person believes negative stereotypes about themselves, regardless of where the stereotypes come from. This page was last edited on 20 January 2021, at 20:31. In Nazi Germany, gay men were persecuted and approximately five to fifteen thousand were imprisoned in Nazi concentration camps. [53] Lenin's emancipation was reversed a decade later by Joseph Stalin and homosexuality remained illegal under Article 121 until the Yeltsin era. (2016), these findings reinforce the necessity to consider that homophobia might reflect concerns about sexuality in general and not homosexuality in particular. 1. hippopotomonstrosesquippedaliophobia (common misspelling, perhaps on purpose, to make the word even longer) "[60] In September 1995, Zimbabwe's parliament introduced legislation banning homosexual acts. This disparity is shown in the graph on the right, which is from a book published in 2008 by Joseph Fried. To fear God means to dwell upon his beautiful, glorious holiness which is the very opposite of sin and evil, and to revere God and know that he loves us so much that he desires us to hate and turn away from sin. [107], To combat homophobia, the LGBT community uses events such as gay pride parades and political activism (See gay pride). The term trypophobia is believed to have been coined by a participant in an online forum in 2005. Spartacus International Gay Guide, page 1217. The researcher suggested that a 1% decrease in the level of homophobia is associated with a 10% increase in the gross domestic product per capita. This discordance can cause clinical depression, and a higher rate of suicide among LGBT youth (up to 30 percent of non-heterosexual youth attempt suicide) has been attributed to this phenomenon. The fear of failure is often hidden behind the reasoning of why you shouldn’t take that step forwa… [130] The scientific use of heterophobia in sexology is restricted to few researchers, notably those who question Alfred Kinsey's sex research. The word is from the Greek : τρῦπα , trŷpa , meaning "hole" and φόβος , phóbos , meaning "fear… A very unpleasant or disturbing feeling caused by the presence or imminence of danger: Our fears intensified as the storm approached. [58] His first major public condemnation of homosexuality was in August 1995, during the Zimbabwe International Book Fair. [89] At least 445 LGBT Brazilians were either murdered or committed suicide in 2017. In Afghanistan, for instance, homosexuality carried the death penalty under the Taliban. On top, there would be costs caused by violence, workplace loss, rejection of the family, and bullying at school, that would result in a lower education level, lower productivity, lower wages, worse health, and a lower life expectancy among the LGBT population. As an example, LGBT tourists contribute 6,800 million dollars every year to the Spanish economy. On the one hand, some look at it as just another of the many me-too social constructions that have arisen in the pseudoscience of victimology in recent decades. [45], State-sponsored homophobia includes the criminalization and penalization of homosexuality, hate speech from government figures, and other forms of discrimination, violence, persecution of LGBT people. the first Triennial Review", "Violent deaths of LGBT people in Brazil hit all-time high", "Police Judgments of Culpability and Homophobia", "Homophobia, racism likely companions, study shows", "Majority support gay equality rights, poll finds", "The global divide on homosexuality: greater acceptance in more secular and affluent countries", "The Hidden Cost of Homophobia in Africa", "What Homophobia Costs a Country's Economy", "A socioecological measurement of homophobia for all countries and its public health impact", "Links between economic development and new measures of LGBT inclusion", "Statement of the Holy See Delegation at the 63rd Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations on the Declaration on Human Rights, Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity", "Council of Europe to advance human rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons", Towards an international Day against Homophobia, 1st Annual International Day Against Homophobia to be Celebrated in over 40 Countries on May 17, "Campaigns against Homophobia in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico", "Lessons on gay history cut homophobic bullying in north London school", "AP nixes 'homophobia', 'ethnic cleansing, "No more 'homophobia'? Rictor Norton; Louie Crew (ed.) Haphephobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by a fear of being touched. [75] According to Cheval et al. Homophobia in men is correlated with insecurity about masculinity. [72] Weinstein et al. [106] In March 2010, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe adopted a recommendation on measures to combat discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation or gender identity, described by CoE Secretary General as the first legal instrument in the world dealing specifically with one of the most long-lasting and difficult forms of discrimination to combat. This can include extreme repression and denial coupled with forced outward displays of heteronormative behavior for the purpose of appearing or attempting to feel "normal" or "accepted." "[95] A study performed in 2007 in the UK for the charity Stonewall reports that up to 90 percent of the population support anti-discrimination laws protecting gay and lesbian people. [133], Negative attitudes and discrimination toward homosexuality and LGBT people. Some less overt behaviors may include making assumptions about the gender of a person's romantic partner, or about gender roles. Republicans are far more likely than Democrats to have negative attitudes about people who are gay and lesbian, according to surveys conducted by the National Election Studies from 2000 through 2004. The fear of failure can be seen in those who procrastinatein taking steps toward things like new careers, education, or starting a relationship. [74] They noted that "these people are at war with themselves and are turning this internal conflict outward. Other expressions of internalized homophobia can also be subtle. [105], Most international human rights organizations, such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International, condemn laws that make homosexual relations between consenting adults a crime. "[48], Although bisexuality was accepted as normal human behavior in Ancient China,[49] homophobia became ingrained in the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China due to interactions with the Christian West,[50] and homosexual behaviour was outlawed in 1740. polyphobia. In this article, we look at the causes, risk factors, and how to cope. Brain processing and reactivity. [98][101][102], The LGBT activist Adebisi Alimi, in a preliminary estimation, has calculated that the economic loss due to homophobia in Nigeria is about 1% of its GDP. [131][132] To date, the existence or extent of heterophobia is mostly unrecognized by sexologists. Megalophobia - Fear of large things; Melanophobia - Fear of the color black; Microphobia - Fear of small things; Mysophobia - Fear of dirt and germs many things, fear of explanation free. Ego-dystonic sexual orientation or egodystonic homophobia, for instance, is a condition characterized by having a sexual orientation or an attraction that is at odds with one's idealized self-image, causing anxiety and a desire to change one's orientation or become more comfortable with one's sexual orientation. This can make it even more difficult to regulate fear and can leave a person anxious most of the time. [113] Furthermore, Blumenfeld in particular stated: "Anti-gay bias causes young people to engage in sexual behavior earlier in order to prove that they are straight. Fear can impair formation of long-term memories and cause damage to certain parts of the brain, such as the hippocampus. [30] This view is opposed by a number of conservative evangelicals,[31] including Robert A. J. Gagnon[32], The official teaching of the Catholic Church regarding homosexuality is that same-sex behavior should not be expressed. Megalophobia, or the fear of large objects can mean an intense fear of things like skyscrapers, large animals, and expansive spaces. This interpretation alludes to the idea that a person may posit violent opposition to "the Other" as a means of establishing their own identity as part of the majority and thus gaining social validation. [26], In 1992, the American Psychiatric Association, recognizing the power of the stigma against homosexuality, issued the following statement, reaffirmed by the Board of Trustees, July 2011: [103], A newer study from March 2018 done by The Williams Institute (UCLA School of Law) concludes that there is a positive correlation between LGBT inclusion and GDP per capita. [23], However, when taken literally, homophobia may be a problematic term. [91], In the United States, attitudes about people who are homosexual may vary on the basis of partisan identification. [21][22] Weinberg's term became an important tool for gay and lesbian activists, advocates, and their allies. [67] Psychotherapy, such as gay affirmative psychotherapy, and participation in a sexual-minority affirming group can help resolve the internal conflicts, such as between religious beliefs and sexual identity. First, the word fear in “fear the Lord” on many occasions means respect. [54], Homosexuality is illegal in 74 countries. Persecutions reached their height during the Medieval Inquisitions, when the sects of Cathars and Waldensians were accused of fornication and sodomy, alongside accusations of Satanism. Lepidopterophobia is derived from the word lepidopterans, the over 155,000 species of insects including butterflies, moths, and skippers. As a result, sufferers of agoraphobia may avoid public and/or unfamiliar places. That doesn’t mean they have a phobia. [63], Internalized homophobia refers to negative stereotypes, beliefs, stigma, and prejudice about homosexuality and LGBT people that a person with same-sex attraction turns inward on themselves, whether or not they identify as LGBT. The anxiety and fear associated with the phobia can vary from mild feelings of apprehension to a full-blown panic attack. According to this study, the legal rights of LGBT people have a bigger influence than the degree of acceptance in the society, but both effects reinforce each other. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. [13] The word homophobia first appeared in print in an article written for the May 23, 1969, edition of the American pornographic magazine Screw, in which the word was used to refer to heterosexual men's fear that others might think they are gay. Scholarly debate over the interpretation of these passages has focused on placing them in proper historical context, for instance pointing out that Sodom's sins are historically interpreted as being other than homosexuality, and on the translation of rare or unusual words in the passages in question. Nearly 2 to 5% of school going children is known to be inflicted with such phobia. [125][126] The AP's decision was criticized in some media outlets, especially those in the LGBT area,[127] who argued that homophobia did not necessarily have to be interpreted in a strict clinical sense.[128][129]. Athazagoraphobia– Fear of being forgotton or ignored or forgetting. FBI [Internet]. "[113], Drawing upon research by Arizona State University Professor Elizabeth Segal, University of Memphis professors Robin Lennon-Dearing and Elena Delavega argued in a 2016 article published in the Journal of Homosexuality that homophobia could be reduced through exposure (learning about LGBT experiences), explanation (understanding the different challenges faced by LGBT people), and experience (putting themselves in situations experienced by LGBT people by working alongside LGBT co-workers or volunteering at an LGBT community center).[114]. hydrophobic), in biology to describe organisms that dislike certain conditions (e.g. Queer theology seeks to provide a counterpoint to religious homophobia. agoraphobia), in chemistry to describe chemical aversions (e.g. That is a really good question. [130] Beyond sexology there is no consensus as to the meaning of the term because it is also used to mean "fear of the opposite" such as in Pierre-André Taguieff's The Force of Prejudice: On Racism and Its Doubles (2001). [7][8], Negative attitudes toward identifiable LGBT groups have similar yet specific names: lesbophobia is the intersection of homophobia and sexism directed against lesbians, biphobia targets bisexuality and bisexual people, and transphobia targets transgender and transsexual people and gender variance or gender role nonconformity. [25] There were also ideas to classify homophobia, racism, and sexism as an intolerant personality disorder. pre/nat/al: Meaning of many things, fear of medical term. [citation needed] In the United States, a February 2012 Pew Research Center poll shows that Catholics support gay marriage by a margin of 52% to 37%. (2) The presence of multiple phobias. [77], Researcher Iain R. Williamson, in his 1998 paper "Internalized Homophobia and Health Issues Affecting Lesbians and Gay Men" finds the term homophobia to be "highly problematic" but for reasons of continuity and consistency with the majority of other publications on the issue retains its use rather than using more accurate but obscure terminology. [47] The theologian Thomas Aquinas was influential in linking condemnations of homosexuality with the idea of natural law, arguing that "special sins are against nature, as, for instance, those that run counter to the intercourse of male and female natural to animals, and so are peculiarly qualified as unnatural vices. [1][3][9] According to 2010 Hate Crimes Statistics released by the FBI National Press Office, 19.3 percent of hate crimes across the United States "were motivated by a sexual orientation bias. without a breast: Term. n. 1. a. In 1307, accusations of sodomy and homosexuality were major charges leveled during the Trial of the Knights Templar. 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